Ph value of the strong acid solution tends to 0 and 14, respectively, but if the value is used as a standard to describe the "strong acid" is not enough.
Magic acid (Magic acid) was first discovered superacid, saying it has magic because it can break down the wax candles. Magic acid is a Lewis acid antimony pentafluoride (SbF5) and one proton acid fluoride acid (FSO3H) mixtures. Currently the strongest super acid is known antimony fluoride acid (en: Fluoroantimonic acid), one kind of hydrofluoric acid (HF) and antimony pentafluoride (SbF5) mixtures. Among the strongest acid pentavalent antimony trifluoride is dissolved in an amount of 80% hydrofluoric acid. The kind of the acid acidic solution has not been determined, but the amount of the dissolved even weaker acidity of the solution of 50% concentrated sulfuric acid solution stronger than 1018-fold. Super acid is composed of two or more kinds of fluorine-containing compounds is added. Such as hydrofluoric acid and five lead fluoride at 1: 0.3 (molar ratio) are mixed, it is the acidity of concentrated sulfuric acid 100 million times; press 1: 1 mixed, it concentrated sulfuric acid is 10 billion times. Can dissolve insoluble in aqua regia higher alkanes candles.
Acid-base neutralization reaction is the essence of the proton transfer reactions. Super acid is more acidic than normal inorganic acids 106 to 1010 times stronger acid. Magic (HSO3F-SbF5) is the strongest known superacid, many substances (such as H2SO? 4) obtained in magic acid protons (ie protonated).
In a very long period of time, people think aqua regia acid is the king, is the strongest acid, because even the gold, aqua regia encounter will be like "dead letter" as soon become a trace.
Until one day Ole professor and his students stumbled upon a strange solution, people should know that in fact is not the strongest aqua regia acid, stronger than its acid, which is super acid, also known as super acid, acid is super strong inorganic acid acidic than ordinary 10 ^ 6 to 10 ^ 10 times more acid. It was found very dramatic: in 1966 before Christmas, the students Oleh a Christmas candle accidentally put into their configuration mixed acid solution, even surprised to find candles dissolved, then immediately made such an acidic series of relevant tests have been found to actually break down the candle, the candle composition no solution, which dispose of the acid as the iron and iron oxide of hydrogen produced general chemical reaction, it also found their incredibly strong acid.
From the composition point of view, super acid is composed of two or more kinds of fluorine-containing compounds is added. Such as hydrofluoric acid, and a mixture of antimony pentafluoride, etc. These are the mixed acid than sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid; nitric acid strong millions of times, or even billions of times the super acid.
Here's to hydrofluoric acid (HF) and antimony pentafluoride (sbF5) mixed acid as an example to introduce the super acid.
Hydrofluoric acid (HF) and antimony pentafluoride (sbF5) mixed acid is what people say magic acid (magic acid) or magic acid, magic acid (HSO3F-SbF5) is the world's strongest-known acid Many substances (such as H2SO-4) obtained in magic acid protons (ie protonated). When they are at 1: 0.3 (molar ratio), it is the acidity of concentrated sulfuric billion times; at 1: 1 mixture, its concentrated sulfuric acid is 10 billion times, the molar ratio of 0.2:1 Acidity can be better achieved when mixing 100% pure sulfuric acid 10 ^ 9 times more, with the increase in the proportion of SbF5 can enhance the acidity. It does not dissolve easily dissolved in aqua regia of higher alkanes candles. So aqua regia before them can only be "trivial."
Magic acid present in the market, you can buy, but it's just antimony pentafluoride and hydrofluoric acid at a volume ratio of 1:1 (note: not in accordance with the molar ratio) blend of mixed acid, its anhydrous acid sulfate 100 times Its bloom only polytetrafluoroethylene container full bloom, because even the glass it will be dissolved.
Currently, super acid in chemistry and the chemical industry, most application value, it is both organic and inorganic reagents of the proton, is highly active catalysts. Past, many in the general environment is extremely difficult or impossible to achieve the realization of chemical reactions in superacid environment. But it can be extraordinarily successful completion. And because the acidic and corrosive Superacid surprisingly strong, so in the past a number of very difficult or impossible to achieve the chemical reaction under the conditions of the superacid can smoothly. For example, butane, under the action of the superacid, hydrocarbon bond cleavage can occur, to generate hydrogen, or carbon-carbon bond cleavage occurs, methane production, isomerization can occur isobutane, which are common acid can not do.